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          是什么造成調節閥的振動和噪聲?
          來源: | 作者:pro3c65e5 | 發布時間: 2017-09-19 | 7034 次瀏覽 | 分享到:

          在生產中,我們有時會發現調節閥、減壓閥及其它節流閥產生嚴重的振動和噪音。實際上產生振動和噪音的同時,這些閥的閥芯、閥座等內部零件被嚴重沖刷,產生一道道磨痕、深溝及凹坑,有的甚至造成閥桿斷裂,這些都嚴重的影響了閥門的使用性能,降低了使用壽命。

          調節閥的振動與噪聲根據其誘發因素不同,大致可分為機械振動、氣蝕振動和流體(渦流)振動等原因。



          導致振動與噪聲的因素

          氣蝕振動

          氣蝕振動一般發生在液態介質的調節閥內。氣蝕產生的根本原因在于調節閥內流體縮流加速和靜壓下降引起液體汽化。調節閥開度越小,其前后的壓差越大,流體加速并產生氣蝕的可能性就越大,與之對應的阻塞流壓降也就越小。

          機械振動

          機械振動根據其表現形式可以分為兩種狀態。一種狀態是調節閥的整體振動,即整個調節閥在管道或基座上頻繁顫動,其原因是由于管道或基座劇烈振動,引起整個調節閥振動。此外還與頻率有關,即當外部的頻率與系統的固有頻率相等或接近時受迫振動的能量達到最大值、產生共振。另一種狀態是調節閥閥瓣的振動,其原因主要是由于介質流速的急劇增加,使調節閥前后差壓急劇變化,引起整個調節閥產生嚴重振蕩。

          渦流振動

          流體在閥門內節流,由于受磨擦、阻力和各種因素的擾動,這就不可避免地產生各式各樣的漩渦流,例如流體沖擊閥桿、通過縫隙、轉彎時在死角處、以及被分流時,都產生漩渦流,漩渦流和圓柱體相互作用,誘發振動,產生漩渦脫離聲。一旦氣流的激振頻率同機械元件的自振頻率相耦合,或者同管道內縱向氣柱聲駐波、橫向氣柱震蕩、熱動力沖擊、氣體動力壓縮或其他不穩定流動產生的壓力波耦合的時候,振動加大,噪聲增大。如果流體流經控制閥產生閃蒸就會形成有氣泡存在的氣、液兩相混合體,兩相流體的減速和膨脹作用也會形成噪聲。另外,空化作用時,氣泡破裂釋放出強大的能量,會產生高達10000Hz的噪聲,氣泡越多,噪聲越嚴重。

          如何應對振動與噪聲

          針對氣蝕

          首先應避免小開度工作。調節閥開度太小,致使節流口處流速增大,壓力迅速減小,流體流經閥門很容易形成閃蒸和氣蝕。儀控君在這篇文章中《點擊這里》提到了閥門小開度時導致汽蝕造成的危害,大家一定不要忽視。

          其次應采用多級分配壓降。防止汽蝕的產生最有效辦法就是使閥門內各級壓降都小于發生汽蝕的最小壓差,即臨界壓差。當控制閥所要承受的壓差遠遠大于臨界壓差時,可采用多級減壓的結構形式。在設計多級節流調節閥時,使每一級節流所承受的壓差要小于允許壓差,這樣每一級都消耗一部分能量,使得下一級的人口壓力相對較低,減小了下一級的壓差,壓力恢復低,這樣可減少節流部位的流速,避免汽蝕的產生和減少汽蝕的作用。當然,如果工況系統不宜于多級減壓結構 , 也可采用節流套筒的結構。

          最后,應規劃合理的開車工藝。生產現場的開車工藝對調節閥的使用情況至關重要 , 對于工作壓力較高而前后壓差較低的調節閥更是如此。

          針對機械振動

          首先應正確選擇零部件。如果閥瓣快速的忽高忽低的變化,閥門定位器靈敏度又太高,調節器輸出微小的變化或飄移,就會立即轉換成定位器輸出信號很大,致使閥振蕩。調節閥的摩擦力太小,外界輸入信號有微小的變化或飄移,會立即傳遞給閥瓣,使其振動。相反,如調節閥的摩擦力太大,則在小信號時動作不了,信號大時一經動作又產生過大的現象,會使調節閥產生遲滯性振蕩。遇到這種情況,應當減小調節閥相應部分的阻尼來解決,如更換填料等。

          其次應注意閥桿連接。在一些工藝機組正常運轉的過程中,高溫高壓蒸汽持續通過高壓調門閥芯,引起高壓調門閥芯、閥桿之間有力矩的產生,從而對旋子銷子產生剪切,加上調門支座振動的原因,使圓柱銷受到嚴重影響,直到斷裂損壞,高壓調門閥桿脫落,威脅機組安全,如果修理不當就會留下極大的安全隱患。

          最后,調節閥安裝位置應遠離振動源,如不可避免,應采取預防措施。

          針對渦流

          針對渦流,首先應使用適當間隔的、細小的迂回通路閥內件。當流體流過具有適當間隔的小孔徑套筒或其它迂回通路時,能獲得較小的噴射流體積,進而減小渦流體積,降低了機械能與聲學能之間的轉換效率,也有效地降低了振動和噪音。同時,較小的渦流能把液體產生的聲學能移至較高的頻率帶,管壁對較高頻率帶的噪聲具有良好的衰減作用,而且人耳對高頻率的聲音具用較低的響應效應。

          采用階梯式閥內件也可以減小振動和噪聲。由于階梯式路徑彎曲,流體流動不暢,造成流動過程中的摩擦,產生較大的壓力損失,消耗流體的能量,從而達到降低振動和噪音的目的。

          其他方法

          采用消音器與提高管壁厚度同樣可以減少噪音與振動。

          消音器是直接安裝在控制閥的下游部位,與控制閥串接在一起,可用來吸收控制閥的聲能,在高流量、低壓降的情況下,更能體現它經濟地控制噪聲的特點,一般情況,它吸收噪聲的能力達25分貝在右。

          增加控制閥下游管道的管壁厚度,能有效地降低控制閥的振動和噪音。但是噪音形成后,不會因在管道中傳送距離的遠近而變弱。因此,控制閥下游的所有管線系統都必須使用同樣壁厚的管道。

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